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Wednesday, 25 September 2019

Nuclear Energy

                                           Nuclear Energy 



The energy generated during nuclear fission is called nuclear or nuclear power.  Nuclear fission is a chemical reaction in which a heavy nucleus breaks into two.  A nuclear fission reaction is a 'chain reaction'.  When one reaction spontaneously leads to another reaction, it is called a chain reaction.


There are two types of chain reactions - uncontrolled chain reaction and controlled chain reaction.  The uncontrolled chain reaction does not control the three newly released ones, causing the rate of fragmentation of the nucleus to be 13,9,27… .. As a result, the energy is generated by a very intense song and a lot of destruction in a short time.  Is able to do.
Atomic bombs are manufactured on the basis of this principle.  The controlled chain reaction takes place slowly and the energy derived from it can be used for profitable works, which is the same reaction in a nuclear reactor to produce nuclear power.


The first nuclear fission reaction, demonstrated by American scientists Strawsman and Auto Hein, when neutrons were bombarded with uranium 235 atoms, found that their nuclei split into two segments.  When neutrons are bombarded with uranium, one uranium nuclear fission emits a lot of energy and three new neutrons.


These newly emitted neutrons fragment the other nuclei of uranium.  Thus uranium forms a chain of fission of nuclei.  Nuclear power is produced in nuclear reactors by controlling this chain reaction.

Uranium or plutonium is used as fuel in nuclear reactors.  Heavy water or graphite is used as a precipitate to control the reaction.  Mandak slows down the speed of neutrons in the reactor.

Cadmium or boron is used as a control rod in the reactor.  This rod absorbs two of the three new neutrons released during fission of the nucleus, thereby controlling the reaction and converting the produced nuclear energy into electrical energy and is used for profitable purposes.

Numerous types of radiation are emitted from a nuclear reactor, which can harm those working near the reactor, so thick concrete walls are built around the reactors, which are called preservatives.

Nuclear reactors are basically used for power generation.  In the nuclear reactor, only a small amount of heat can be produced from a small amount of fuel, where 300 million tons of coal is needed to run a 1,000 baht of thermal power plant, whereas the same power generation in a nuclear reactor is only 30 tons of uranium.  It is possible that the electrical energy obtained from the reactor is used in various industries.

Additionally, nuclear reactors are also used to produce shootonium.  It is a better fissile material than uranium.  Uranium is bombarded with rapid neutrons under series reaction in a nuclear reactor and converted to jutonium.

Artificial isotopes of many elements are also made in nuclear reactors.  These isotopes are used in medicine, agriculture, biology and other scientific researches.  Today all the developed and developing countries of the world are taking interest in building nuclear 

reactors for power generation.


Despite nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan in the year 2011, nuclear power is considered as an important alternative to energy supply worldwide.  US President Mr. Barack Obama has given permission to build a new reactor for the first time in 30 years.

China has to build new reactors for 60 thousand MW of electricity every year.  So far, Poland, a country dependent on coal for electricity, is also attracted towards nuclear power.  European countries have the largest number of nuclear reactors in the cross.

According to nuclear politician Rebecca Harms, the construction of a nuclear reactor costs around Rs.450 billion.  Berlin's environmental scientist Lutsch Metsch says that even today, neither the technology to destroy old nuclear reactors has been developed, nor has there been any way to preserve nuclear waste.

Despite this, at present there are around four hundred and fifty hundred nuclear reactors in 30 countries of the world.  The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was set up on August 10, 1948 under the chairmanship of Dr. Homi Jahangir Bhabha for the purpose of research, development and its application in the field of nuclear energy in India.  This Commission established the Department of Atomic Energy in the year 1954 to implement its policies.
There are many research institutes under this department, at the same time it also collaborates with other research institutes on reading the requirement.  In 1956, the first nuclear research reactor named 'Apsara' was built in India with the aim of producing nuclear power near Mumbai.  Presently three other reactors named Jarlina, Dhruv and Cyrus are operating here.

There are 21 nuclear reactors currently operating in India and construction work of several reactors is also going on.  Of the 21 operational reactors, there are 2 boiling water reactors, 18 pressurized heavywater reactors and 1 pressurized light reactor, generating around 3,900 MW of electricity, which is 3% of the total power generated in the country.

In the year 1957, the Atomic Energy Foundation was established at Trombay, now called Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC).  The production of heavy water in the form of a neutron-pot started in the year 1962 to continue the chain reaction in nuclear fission reactions.  India is now not only self-sufficient in the production of heavy water, but is also exporting it to other countries.

The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, which is involved in the construction and maintenance of nuclear power plants in India, has set a target to reach nuclear power generation capacity of 20,000 MW by the year 2020.  From time to time, India has also sought cooperation from other countries for the development of nuclear power.

In 1981, India's second nuclear power plant 'Rajasthan Atomic Power Plant' started functioning at Rawatbhata near Kota in Rajasthan.  After this, the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board was established in the year 1983.  On July 23 of this year, India's third nuclear disordered plant was established at Kalpakkam near Madras (now Chennai).
In the year 1987, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited was established to expand nuclear programs.  Supply of energy to a growing population is becoming a problem for India.  Energy demand in the country is expected to grow at a growth rate of 5.2% in the coming years.

Primary energy consumption has also increased due to the growing population, a booming economy and the desire for a good standard of living.  In such a situation, it has become mandatory for India to give special importance to nuclear power, increasing the supply of energy in India and exploiting the sources is not keeping up with the increasing demand of energy, hence our country is facing a situation of energy shortage.

India has to import oil and other resources from various countries for its increasing energy requirements, although non-conventional sources of energy are also being given special importance in India for the last few years for energy production.

Nuclear Energy in India






India has been giving the message of peace and love to the world since the beginning, not only the sages and sages of the country, but also the scientists here have always used their knowledge and science for human welfare.

Even when the developed nations of the world were competing for nuclear weapons to prove themselves powerful, the scientists of our country were thinking of doing things for human welfare such as power generation by nuclear fission.

One year before the US dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki of Japan during World War II, the great scientist Dr. Homi Jahangir Bhabha, who was called the father of nuclear power in India, said- "Suppose now that one-  Nuclear power was successfully used in power generation in two decades, then India did not need to look abroad for nuclear experts  In will, but Bay that will get ready. "

Atomic energy is generated by nuclear fission, hence it is also called nuclear energy.  Nuclear fission is a flowing chemical reaction, in which a heavy nucleus breaks into two.  A nuclear fission reaction is a chain reaction.  This chain reaction is of two types - uncontrolled chain reaction and controlled chain reaction.
While uncontrolled chain reaction is used to make atomic bombs, nuclear power is produced in nuclear reactors by controlled chain reaction.  Uranium 235 or plutonium 239 is used as fuel in nuclear reactors.  Heavy water or graphite is used as a precipitate to control the reaction.

Mandak slows down the song of the neutron in the reactor.  Cadmium or boron is used as a control rod in the reactor.  This rod absorbs two of the three new neutrons emitted during the fission of the nucleus, thereby controlling the reaction and converting the produced nuclear energy into electrical energy and is used for profitable purposes.

Numerous types of radiation are emitted from a nuclear reactor, which can harm those who work near the reactor, so thick concrete walls are formed around the reactors to protect them.

Nuclear reactors are basically used for power generation, in nuclear reactors only a small amount of fuel can produce a lot of heat.  While 300 million tonnes of coal is required to run a 1,000 baht of thermal power plant, the same separate generation is possible with only 30 tonnes of uranium in a nuclear reactor.

The electrical energy obtained from the reactor is used in various industries.  Additionally, nuclear reactors are also used to produce plutonium. It is a better fissile material than uranium.  Uranium 238 is bombarded with rapid neutrons and converted to plutonium 239 under a chain reaction in a nuclear reactor.

Artificial isotopes of many elements are also made in nuclear reactors.  These isotopes are used in medicine, agricultural biology and other scientific research.  The nuclear fission reaction was first demonstrated by American scientists Strawsman and Auto Hone.
They emitted a large amount of energy by bombarding the neutrons on the uranium atom and dividing its nucleus into two blocks in a series of reactions.  Today all the developed and developing countries of the world are taking interest in building nuclear reactors for power generation.

Despite nuclear accidents in Fukushima, Japan in the year 2011, nuclear power is considered as an important energy supply option worldwide.  The President of the US, Barack Obama, has given permission to build a new reactor for the first time in the year 2012 after 30 years. China has to build new reactors for 60 thousand MW power every year.
Poland, a country dependent on coal for electricity, has started attracting towards nuclear power.  Among European countries, France has the largest number of nuclear reactors, according to nuclear politician Rebecca Harms, a nuclear reactor costs about Rs.450 billion to build.  Berlin's environmental scientist Lütsch Metsch says: "The technology to destroy old reactors has not yet been developed, and neither method of safeguarding nuclear waste has been found."

Despite this, the production of nuclear power has become a necessity in the present era.  Today, there are approximately 45.500 active nuclear reactors in 30 countries of the world.  The establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1948 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Bhabha in India coincided with the Atomic Energy Program.

This Commission established the Department of Atomic Energy in the year 1954 to implement its nuclear energy policies. Many research institutes are working under this department.  Then our first Prime Minister Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru said- "The Indian nuclear program is for peaceful purposes only." Today our country is pursuing the same model to produce nuclear power by nuclear fission.

The Atomic Energy Commission planned to expand its nuclear programs in three phases, with the first aim being to set up a natural water-reactive reactor powered by natural uranium fuel.

Subsequently, the target was to set up reactors to further the process of reprocessing uranium produced from plutonium fuel-driven fast breeder reactors and nuclear fast reactors, respectively.

The first nuclear research reactor was built near Mumbai in the year 1956, named Apsara.  Except for the fuel parts (imported from Britain), this boiling water reactor was manufactured by its own countrymen.  In the same year, with the help of Canada, a second reactor named Cyrus was announced in Maharashtra itself.

Currently, there are 4 nuclear reactors operating in Maharashtra and 4 in the country, with a total installed capacity of about 6 thousand MW.  These reactors installed in six provinces of India (Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat) have 2 boiling water reactors and 18 pressurized heavy water reactors (pressurized heavy water reactors) and one pressurized light water reactor.

Along with this, many other reactors are also under construction.  On August 3, 2014, at the Diamond Jubilee Celebration celebrating 60 years of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Government of India, the Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi said- “We hope that we will keep the current level of labor up to 2023-24  We will achieve the target of tripling 5780 MW. ”Undoubtedly, like other branches of knowledge science, India is setting new records in the field of nuclear power.

Unit-5 of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Plant, operational since 2 August 2012, has become the second largest in the world, running uninterrupted for more than two years.  This unit is a byproduct of indigenously developed PHWR technology.  On this achievement, Secretary of the Department of Atomic Energy, Ratan Kumar had said- “This is not just an emotional moment, but a proud watch.  There are only 10 reactors in the world, which have been operating continuously uninterrupted for more than 500 days. ”

Simultaneously, the country's 21st nuclear reactor at Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu (the country's first pressurized plant under light water reactor category) starting 1,000 MW of power from June 2014 is a major achievement of the Indian nuclear program.

With the technical support of the Russian Federation, this plant is likely to produce far more power than other Indian plants.  According to a report of the World Bank, about 40 crore people in India are deprived of electricity facilities, in such a way, the development of nuclear reactors and their capacities in the country will prevent a large scale power crisis here.
It is noteworthy that the Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay (AEET) was established in Mumbai in the year 1967.  Presently known as 'Bhabha Atomic Research Center' (BARC), this research center is constantly in the forefront of the country's nuclear power development.

Not only does India manufacture nuclear power, it has also sought cooperation from other countries from time to time for the development of nuclear power.  In 1969, with the help of the United States, the commercial operation of India's first electric plant 'Tarapur Vidyutantra' started.

India tested the first plutonic nuclear fuel, which had a capacity of 10–20 kilotons, at Pokhran on 18 May 1974.  For this reason, other nuclear-powered countries, including the US, had stopped supplying nuclear fuel, equipment and technology to India.  For some time, India's nuclear programs had to go through a severe phase.

Then our former Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi said on the 11th Foundation Day of the Organization of Africa Integration - "Do the countries who have been shrinking their nose at nuclear testing done by India for peaceful purposes believe that developed countries should make atomic bombs for destruction?"  And the developing countries like India cannot develop nuclear power to solve the problems of their people and other problems.  Do not know why, despite the efforts made by our country in this area for the last 25 years, there is so much uproar today?  We have done everything as per the previous announcement, we are still firm on our old point that the use of atomic power by our country will not be used for demolition, but only in the areas of agricultural development, power generation and medicine. ”

As the crisis passed, in 1961, the second nuclear power plant of India 'Rajasthan Atomic Power Plant' started functioning at Rawatbhata near Kota in Rajasthan.  After this, the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board was established in the year 1983.

On July 23 this year, India's third nuclear power plant was established in Kalpakkam near Madras (now Chennai). In 1987, the Atomic Power Corporation of India Limited was set up to expand nuclear programs.

In the late 20th century, India went through periods of political instability and economic crises.  This also had an impact on the development of India's nuclear programs.  At that time India was struggling with problems like internal terrorism, separatism communalism, political instability, on the other hand, other nuclear power countries including the US, pressure on India to continuously sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty CTBT.  Were putting

In addition, neighboring countries like China and Pakistan were also bullying India.  India conducted five nuclear tests in a series on May 11 and 13, 1998, after 24 years of its first nuclear test, to protect its reputation at the regional level and to be free from international pressures.

These tests conducted in India by countries like America, Australia, Canada and Japan were widely opposed.  India had to face many international restrictions.  Despite this, in the year 2000, it implemented the third and fourth units of Rawatbhata Atomic Power Station.
In 2008, 34 years after India conducted the first nuclear test in Pokhran, there were civil nuclear agreements between our country and all the P-5 member countries except the US, Russia, France and Britain ie China.

At the same time, important agreements related to the supply of uranium and reactors and nuclear technology were also reached from countries such as Canada, Argentina, Kazakhstan, Namibia.  India has used nuclear power for peaceful purposes, due to this policy of India, the world nuclear rich countries have taken a positive attitude towards India's nuclear programs.

Here, after the Bharatiya Janata Party government came to power at the Center, the civil nuclear agreement was signed between India and Australia on 5 September 2014.  India is the only country out of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty that has the facility to trade in nuclear energy with nuclear weapon states.

After the civil nuclear agreement with various countries, the prospects of developing nuclear power in India have increased considerably.  Today, India is getting cooperation in the field of nuclear energy from many countries including America.

In fact, the supply of abundant energy is a difficult challenge in a country with a large population like India.  In such a situation, nuclear energy can prove to be a good alternative to energy supply in the country.  Our former President Mr. APJ Akul Kalam Saheb has also said- "Atomic energy is the door to our prosperous future".

In order to achieve rapid success in its nuclear power development program, India will have to face sustainable development in the face of various adverse conditions.  It is expected that in the coming years, India will become self-sufficient in the field of nuclear energy as well as other energy options.

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